Halloween ~ a revisionist history
It’s that time of year when leaves fall in a glorious kaleidoscope of colour, and trees turn to skeletons. Eastvan avenues change from warm sunlit bike paths filled with happy hipsters, to dark howling windtunnels with decidedly less-happy hipsters. Riding bikes.
So as Halloween approaches, the fact that we begin to consider death and darkness isn't inherently pagan… it’s human. It’s what we do with those thoughts that matters.
Our family reconsiders the issue of Halloween each year - how are we responding, what are we celebrating, why are we participaing, and the present likelihood of a zombie-apocalypse. We fully recognize that most Canadian Christians do observe the day, but differ in the level of participation or acceptance of it. In past decades, Halloween was depicted as a night when ancient Celtic Druids raped and sacrificed virgins, leaving carved pumpkins on the doorsteps of households that gave up their daughters (never mind the fact that pumpkins were a New World plant exported and only grown in Europe recently). Other Christians offered the opposite but equally naïve defense of “it’s no big deal”, sending their kids out to collect & consume ridiculous amounts of corn-syrup-infused confections. A few years back, some fine folks attempted to 'redeem the day', dubbing it 'Jesus Ween' ~ Encouraging their kids to wear white t-shirts & hand out New Testaments. Well-intentioned I'm sure, and a very generous gift to Jimmy Kimmel. But as a prophetic minority called & sent to extend love, grace & truth to our neighbours, being a 'JesusWeener' probably won't be received as 'good news' by anyone.
As confounding as this un-holy-day is, it's worth considering Halloween's long & complex history; following the causal chain linking a pagan harvest festival to children dressed as pirates & princesses is no simple task. Christian and secular historians keep finding layers of revisionist history that try to wrap the origins of this holiday up in a nice little bow. They invariably fail by drawing unevenly upon fact, fiction & fear. So, before addressing the Christian’s response to this holiday, let’s look at what little we do know.
History & Theology
Ancient Celts celebrated a holiday called Samhain (meaning “summer’s end”), where they would extinguish their hearth fires and host large ceremonial bonfires, sacrificing animals and crops. This didn’t occur on October 31 but around the same time, depending on the phases of the moon. It marked the end of the harvest and the beginning of a season where the people would be dependent on food stores and shelter from the elements. Superstitious Celts associated winter with death and thought that the season’s transition was marked by the close proximity of spirits; they believed this thin veil would help their Druid priests make prophecies, enabling them to survive the harsh winter. There is an accrued mythology that Druids also wore masks on this night and went from door to door, but historical evidence does not support this theory; it seems more like creative fiction manufactured to explain the evolution of modern customs.
The name of our present-day holiday, Halloween (or “All Hallows’ Eve”), actually stems from a celebration for saints formed by the early church. A celebration day for all saints emerged in church history as early as the 4th century, but it was originally set in May or the day following Pentecost (some records suggest this also paved over a similar Roman day of the dead). It was the Germans who initially shifted the custom to November 1st, and whether or not this had to do with the practices of the Irish Celts is questioned by historians to this day. In the 8th century, Pope Gregory III universally changed the date to mirror the German date in conjunction with the consecration of the chapel in St. Peter’s. “All Hallows’ Day” or “All Saints’ Day” would later become a day not only to recognize official Catholic Saints, but also to commemorate the dead and visit the cemetery to reflect on family or friends who had passed away. Several hundred years later, November 2nd would become “All Souls’ Day” in Catholic tradition. All Hallows’ Eve simply marked the night before, much like Christmas Eve. A focus on cemeteries and the dead had as much to do with Catholic as Celtic traditions, and the accrued traditions and superstitions are a mixed bag blending our own early immigrant Canadian traditions of harvest festivals and the various 'days of the dead' marked by most cultures (Mexico's El Día de los Muertos, Brazil's Finados, China's Ghost Festival, Japan's O-Bon, Vietnam's Tet Trung Nguyen, Korea's Hankawi, and Nepal's Gia Jatra).
Despite myth and folklore imposed in retrospect on this holiday, recent study reveals that trick-or-treating is a fairly new convention that didn’t become significant until 1930 in the United States. Canada, Europe and other countries co-opted the practice, caught up in U.S. merchandising and global influence. Forms of costumed extortion have existed for centuries in Christianized Europe, called “mumming” or “guising” and usually involve singing or performing a short play in exchange for food or drink. Wassailing is another grand tradition of singing and going from house to house. One of the closest similarities we find with a loose connection to trick-or-treating appears in the Middle Ages on All Souls’ Day (November 2nd), where the poor would go from home to home and offer prayers for those in purgatory in exchange for food. However, strong evidence suggests that childish mischief and vandalism on the 30th and 31st in early 1900s America (particularly vicious in Detroit, where October 30, the day before Halloween, became known as “Devil’s Night”) gave rise to organized evening activity to make actual treats replace the increasing abundance of tricks.
If Christianity did not successfully pave over this holiday (much as Christmas paved over the Roman Saturnalia), Americana certainly did. This has been punctuated visibly with our indigenous pumpkin replacing the original “Jack-O-Lantern”, originally an Irish turnip. If Halloween itself was a pumpkin, however, there would truly be nothing left to carve. The seasonal change has been celebrated by pagans and Christians for centuries, taking on the customs of a dozen cultures along the way. Its present incarnation receives disdain not only from many Christians but also from professing witches and wiccans. The former feel that it’s intrinsically tied to satanic beliefs and the latter group sees it as a distorted mockery of their beliefs.
One of the more interesting anecdotes found in researching the history of Halloween is that the one activity many churches & schools do engage in is perhaps the one most easily linked to paganism. ‘Bobbing for apples’ was actually a divination ritual related to love and fertility.
To Trick or Not to Treat?
Even if we loosly-ascribe church origins to Halloween, the day does differ from Christmas. Some will offer that the week in December when we commemorate Christ’s birth was once a Roman festival celebrating Saturn. Thus, Christmas is compromised by paganism just like Halloween. They may also mention that most Christians call the day Jesus rose from death “Easter”, which has roots in pagan fertility rituals (hence the rabbit, cream eggs & peeps). As Christmas and Easter have over-run and co-opted various trappings, however, there is for Christians a clear, central focus on Jesus’ incarnation. Halloween may not be inherently evil, but it also has no central, specific focus on the Lord we love. Whether we see Halloween as pagan practices, Catholic traditions, or PG-rated candy-coated extortion - none of these offers great inspiration to participate.
At Reality, we don’t believe in the deities worshipped by the Celts or the rituals used to appease or summon them. We do, however, recognize that there are evil spirits that confuse and lead people astray from relationship with the one true God. We recognize that the Bible calls all Christians “saints” and don’t believe in the extra-biblical concepts of sainthood or purgatory. Many of the ideas and rituals that have contributed to the Halloween mash-up aren’t congruent with Christian faith & life. However, setting aside times to remember or honour those we love that have passed away is not a bad idea, and may be consistent with biblical understandings of ancestry and family.
On a less-somber level, dressing as Queen Elsa or Queen Latifah, carving orange gourds, and engaging in neighbourhood activities where one can both give and receive hospitality, is certainly not something we oppose. Fictional fantasy tales of monsters and elves – even scary ones – are not wholly inappropriate either, whether punctuated on this particular weekend or sprinkled throughout the year in classic tales from authors including Tolkien and C.S.Lewis. We regard Halloween as a secondary, or open-handed issue (not worth dividing over) and ask that every Christian examine their response to its modern-day celebration in our culture.
Some members of Reality will likely opt to avoid Halloween altogether because portions of its mixed-up history bruise their conscience. Others see it as a truly commercialized holiday, not specifically Christian but essentially neutral, and have no conscience-issues participating. Others still draw various lines in between; some don’t go out and actively participate, but remain in their homes and hand out candy to trick-or-treaters so that they can offer hospitality to their neighbours and community. Some set up neighbourhood warming stations offering hot chocolate & tea to escorting parents & guardians. Some churches offer alternative events that exclude the more questionable elements - dressing up as historical characters, superheroes or animals. There are even a few pyromaniac Christians who enjoy the fine art of backyard fireworks on their legal night of glory (including your pastor).
For those who have shunned Halloween because they were simply told it was evil, or for those who have participated and never bothered to weigh its appropriateness, we’d like to encourage the employment of godly wisdom, discernment, and a sense of our shared mission as Christians in our city. Our abstinence or participation in Halloween should not be derived from fear, misinformation, or pressure - but rather from a sincere love of Jesus; every response to our culture and its festivals is a way to point to the God we love and serve. Live on mission, only please... don't be a JesusWeener.
Lastly, for parents; don’t forget that while gutting a gourd is not likely a sin, gluttony certainly is. Let's not encourage our kids to learn this the hard way; lying on an altar of twizzlers and fuzzy peaches, holding their stomachs after a sugar-induced crash. If you do participate in Halloween, it might be a healthy time to introduce the concepts of moderation & self-control.
2 Interesting Halloween Facts:
1. While zombies are increasingly popular, many Christians haven't connected the intentional-misrepresentation of this fictional idea. Zombies are a direct distortion of the Resurrection of Jesus. Where Jesus rose from the dead to bring life, zombies rise from the dead to bring death. Where those who walk in the light of Christ express a contagious faith, zombies who walk in darkness are also said to be contagious. One redemptive element may be that in the end of most zombie-apocalypses, the zombies don't actually win. Which for those of us who know the true end of The Story, is the Maranatha-happily-ever-after.
2. October 31st is also “Reformation Day”, commemorating the day, 500 years ago this year, when Martin Luther posted his 95 Theses challenging the doctrine of penance, the authority of the pope, and the usefulness of indulgences.
* adapted history from an article by J. Harlemann